Stage 0: Emergent Counting– Cannot count visible items– The child may not know the number words.

– The child cannot coordinate number words with items.

Stage 1: Perceptual Counting– Can count perceived items.– May involve seeing, hearing or feeling items.
Stage 2: Figurative Counting–  Can count the total of two collections.–  Counts from one
Stage 3: Initial Number Sequence–  Child uses and understands counting-on rather than counting-from-one.–  Uses counting on to solve addition and missing addend tasks.

–  May use count-down-from strategies

Stage 4: Intermediate Number SequenceThe child uses and understands:– count-down-from strategies- count-down-to strategies–  The child can choose the most efficient strategy.
Stage 5:Facile Number SequenceThe child uses a range of non-count by one strategies:–  Compensation

–  Using known results

–  Adding to ten

–  Commutativity

–  Subtraction as the inverse of addition

–  Awareness of ten as a teen number